In Japan, the Fifteen Years' War (十五年戦争, Jūgonen Sensō) is also used, referring to the period from the Mukden Incident of 1931 through 1945. The battle did not turn out as the Japanese had hoped. However, the smaller powers continued to push for an American-based body. [218], The Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation began on 9 August 1945, with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo and was the last campaign of the Second World War and the largest of the 1945 Soviet–Japanese War which resumed hostilities between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Empire of Japan after almost six years of peace. and War in the West, are both playable individually and are both designed for two sided play. [98] On 7 January, the Japanese attacked Bataan. The Japanese were short of fuel, consequently the Yamato had only enough to reach Okinawa. [33], Australia incurred losses of 45,841 not including deaths and illnesses from natural causes such as disease: 17,501 killed (including POW deaths in captivity), 13,997 wounded, and 14,345 living POWs. 0000022370 00000 n War in Europe is a compendium of three modules, War in the East 2nd ed., War in the West, and War in Europe. [175], Off Cape Engaño, 500 miles (800 km) north of Leyte Gulf, the Americans launched over 500 aircraft sorties at the Northern Force, followed up by a surface group of cruisers and destroyers. [113] Although they managed to sink a carrier, the battle was a disaster for the Japanese. [214] However, other scholars have argued that the atomic bombings shocked the Japanese government into surrender, with the Emperor finally indicating his wish to stop the war. [175] On 25 October the final major surface action fought between the Japanese and the American fleets during the war occurred off Samar, when Center Force fell upon a group of American escort carriers escorted only by destroyers and destroyer escorts. Not only was the attack on Port Moresby halted, which constituted the first strategic Japanese setback of the war, but all three carriers that were committed to the battle would now be unavailable for the operation against Midway. [76] In fact, the Imperial GHQ noted, should acceptable negotiations be reached with the Americans, the attacks were to be canceled—even if the order to attack had already been given. Japanese industrial production plunged as nearly half of the built-up areas of 67 cities were destroyed by B-29 firebombing raids. However, the two IJN carriers had suffered severe losses in aircraft and pilots as well and had to retire to home waters for repair and replenishment. While formerly the IJA consumed the lion's share of the state's military budget due to the secondary role of the IJN in Japan's campaign against China (with a 73/27 split in 1940), from 1942 to 1945 there would instead be a roughly 60/40 split in funds between the army and the navy. An intense naval and air bombardment preceded the landing but did little but drive the Japanese further underground, making their positions impervious to enemy fire. The Japanese exploited this lack of unity to press ahead in their offensives. [201] Total American casualties were 49,451, including 12,520 dead or missing and 36,631 wounded. [266], Following the surrender of Japan, the International Military Tribunal for the Far East took place in Ichigaya, Tokyo from 29 April 1946 to 12 November 1948 to try those accused of the most serious war crimes. Both nations were exhausted by years of battles, bombings and blockades. The main landings by the 14th Army took place at Lingayen Gulf on 22 December, with the bulk of the 16th Infantry Division. The Chinese then cut Japanese supply lines, provoking a retreat and Chinese pursuit. The battle for Okinawa proved costly and lasted much longer than the Americans had originally expected. [85] The government of Thailand formally allied with Japan on 21 December. Although they managed to gain a foothold on the beaches, the defenders made them pay a high price for every advance inland. [106] However, the Naval General Staff, the Combined Fleet, and the Imperial Army, all had different strategies for the next sequence of operations. [183], Hard-fought battles on the Japanese islands of Iwo Jima, Okinawa, and others resulted in horrific casualties on both sides but finally produced a Japanese defeat. Shaw, Henry, Bernard Nalty, and Edwin Turnbladh. [232] A large number of deaths were caused directly by Japanese war crimes. British, Australian, and Dutch forces, already drained of personnel and matériel by two years of war with Germany, and heavily committed in the Middle East, North Africa, and elsewhere, were unable to provide much more than token resistance to the battle-hardened Japanese. for sale! (12,031 killed and 24,425 wounded in the 1945. Thailand, with its territory already serving as a springboard for the Malayan Campaign, surrendered within 5 hours of the Japanese invasion. The Japanese responded to the Allied attacks by launching an offensive of their own into India in the middle of March, across the mountainous and densely forested frontier. [205] Chinese forces totaled 110,000 men in 20 divisions. E. Bruce Reynolds, "Aftermath of Alliance: The Wartime Legacy in Thai-Japanese Relations", Boog et al. [238] These four alone sank 420,467 gross tons of Allied shipping. [187] The main underground command post had a concrete roof 10 feet (3.0 m) thick. [119] Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo was put in a difficult tactical situation in which he had to counter continuous American air attacks and prepare to recover his Midway strike planes, while deciding whether to mount an immediate strike on the American carrier or wait to prepare a proper attack. On 20 October 1944 the US Sixth Army, supported by naval and air bombardment, landed on the favorable eastern shore of Leyte, north of Mindanao. Iwo Jima was one of the bloodiest battles fought by the Americans during the Pacific War, the Japanese fought to the last man. Although Japan had occupied much of northern, central, and coastal China, the Nationalist Government had retreated to the interior with a provisional capital set up at Chungking while the Chinese communists remained in control of base areas in Shaanxi. Ho Ping-ti. Operation Ichi-go created a great sense of social confusion in the areas of China that it affected. However, the main Japanese defenses were in the southern part of the island. The strike force found and struck only an oiler, the Neosho, and the destroyer Sims. Four days after Pearl Harbor, Germany and Italy declared war on the United States, drawing the country into a two-theater war. Allied submarines did not adopt a defensive posture and wait for the enemy to attack. After Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor and the subsequent declarations of war, both navies had access to Japanese naval facilities. Kevin Blackburn, Karl Hack. [267][268], Theater of World War II fought in the Pacific and Asia, This article is about the Pacific theaters of World War II. Australian and Dutch forces led civilians in a prolonged guerilla campaign in Portuguese Timor. [152], In mid-1944 Japan mobilized over 500,000 men[153] and launched a massive operation across China under the code name Operation Ichi-Go, their largest offensive of World War II, with the goal of connecting Japanese-controlled territory in China and French Indochina and capturing airbases in southeastern China where American bombers were based. Gathering five heavy cruisers, two light cruisers, and a destroyer, he sailed to engage the Allied force off the coast of Guadalcanal. There were some 426,000 American casualties: 161,000 dead (including 111,914 in battle and 49,000 non-battle), 248,316 wounded, and 16,358 captured (not counting POWs who died). [238] There were significant indirect losses to the British Empire territories of India and Burma as a result of the war. From 1944 the French commando group Corps Léger d'Intervention also took part in resistance operations in Indochina. The two separate groups of the Southern Force would join up and strike at the landing area through the Surigao Strait, while the Northern Force with the Japanese carriers would lure the main American covering forces away from Leyte. [263] In 1993, Chief Cabinet Secretary Yōhei Kōno said that women were coerced into brothels run by Japan's wartime military. The meeting was also known as the Cairo Conference and concluded with the Cairo Declaration. The United States used the ensuing period to turn its vast industrial potential into increased numbers of ships, planes, and trained aircrew. Another 320 were passenger ships and troop transports. [183] The most notorious use of forced labour was in the construction of the Burma–Thailand "Death Railway". The Americans lost 130 aircraft and 76 aircrew, many losses due to aircraft running out of fuel returning to their carriers at night. Although the Japanese had moved their major vessels out in time to avoid being caught at anchor in the atoll, two days of air attacks resulted in significant losses to Japanese aircraft and merchant shipping. By 1941 the conflict had become a stalemate. War In the East. All forces for the Marianas operation were to be commanded by Admiral Raymond A. Spruance. The pillboxes and bunkers were all connected so that if one was knocked out, it could be reoccupied again. However these were not operational commands. The Mobile Fleet returned home with only 35 aircraft of the 430 with which it had begun the battle. [86], Hong Kong was attacked on 8 December and fell on 25 December 1941, with Canadian forces and the Royal Hong Kong Volunteers playing an important part in the defense. These islands provided bases for the US Fifth and Thirteenth Air Forces to attack targets throughout the Philippines and the South China Sea.              Philippines: 377,500, 121,100, (498,600) On 22 November 1943 US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and ROC Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, met in Cairo, Egypt, to discuss a strategy to defeat Japan. The Naval General Staff advocated an advance to the south to seize parts of Australia. [222] The formal Japanese Instrument of Surrender was signed on 2 September 1945, on the battleship USS Missouri, in Tokyo Bay. WAR IN THE WEST was designed by James F. Dunnigan and published by Simulations Publications, Incorporated (SPI) in 1976. It was geographically the largest theater of the war, including the vast Pacific Ocean theater, the South West Pacific theater, the South-East Asian theater, the Second Sino-Japanese War, and the Soviet–Japanese War. 5371 0 obj <>stream With the striking power of the Kido Butai having been destroyed, Japan's offensive power was blunted. This page is here as a resource to help people play and enjoy the old SPI games they own. Consequently, Bataan fell on 9 April, with the 76,000 American and Filipino prisoners of war being subjected to a grueling 66-mile (106-km) ordeal that came to be known as the Bataan Death March. The US Navy did not seek out the Japanese fleet for a decisive battle, as Mahanian doctrine would suggest (and as Japan hoped); the Allied advance could only be stopped by a Japanese naval attack, which oil shortages (induced by submarine attack) made impossible.[78][99]. Consequently, the Japanese retained their remaining strength in preparation for what they hoped would be a decisive battle. [citation needed]. [256][257], During the Pacific War, Japanese soldiers killed millions of non-combatants, including prisoners of war, from surrounding nations. SPI War in the Pacific: the Campaign Against Imperial Japan, 1941-45. Allied naval and air forces, centered on the US 7th Fleet under Admiral Thomas Kinkaid, the Australian First Tactical Air Force and the US Thirteenth Air Force also played important roles in the campaign. Kevin Blackburn, Karl Hack. [239] New Zealand lost 578 men killed, with an unknown number wounded or captured. Punched and played. Fighting consisted of some of the largest naval battles in history, and incredibly fierce battles and war crimes across Asia and the Pacific Islands, resulting in immense loss of human life. Decision Games: War in the Pacific. Then the Americans would be lured into the areas where the Mobile Fleet could defeat them.[162]. Moves to 50 and 40 the further you move from the equator.) This was followed on 1 June by simultaneous assaults in the north west, on the island of Labuan and the coast of Brunei. The surrender was accepted by General Douglas MacArthur as Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, with representatives of several Allied nations, from a Japanese delegation led by Mamoru Shigemitsu and Yoshijirō Umezu. [258] At least 20 million Chinese died during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945). However, the advancing British Fourteenth Army under Lieutenant General William Slim switched its axis of advance to outflank the main Japanese armies. 0000005004 00000 n Maps: 7 1 Hex = 60 Nautical miles (at equator. They had lost over 50,000 troops, mainly to starvation and disease. [105] The Second Operational Phase was planned to expand Japan's strategic depth by adding eastern New Guinea, New Britain, the Aleutians, Midway, the Fiji Islands, Samoa, and strategic points in the Australian area. On 7 May, the Japanese carriers launched a full strike on a contact reported to be enemy carriers, but the report turned out to be false. "The Lake Khasan Affair of 1938: Overview and Lessons". On 15 January, Wavell moved to Bandung in Java to assume control of ABDACOM. [241] Material losses included some 1,000 tanks and AFVs, 5 landing ships, and 300 aircraft.              New Guinea: 112,400, 15,200, (127,600) However, with large numbers of troops still engaged in China combined with those stationed in Manchuria in a standoff with the Soviet Union, the Imperial Japanese Army declined to contribute the forces necessary for such an operation;[106] this quickly led to the abandonment of the concept. In the Burma campaign, other members, such as the anti-British Indian National Army of Free India and the Burma National Army of the State of Burma were active and fighting alongside their Japanese allies. In August, Japanese and US carrier forces engaged in an indecisive clash known as the Battle of the Eastern Solomons. 日本軍による『三光政策・三光作戦をめぐって [Concerning the Three Alls Strategy/Three Alls Policy By the Japanese Forces].              Solomon Islands: 63,200, 25,000, (88,200) A giant U was formed with the 27th at the base 1,500 yards (1.4 km) behind the advancing formations. Furthermore, the standard-issue Mark 14 torpedo and its Mark VI exploder both proved defective, problems which were not corrected until September 1943. 0000002631 00000 n War in the Pacific page 1 page 2. THERE IS A SLIGHT YELLOWING ON THE FOLDS OF SOME MAP [124] On 7 August, US Marines landed on the islands of Guadalcanal and Tulagi in the Solomons. All of these were members of the Pacific War Council. [186], However, the Japanese had also come to realize the strategic value of Iwo Jima and Lt. General Tadamichi Kuribayashi was assigned command of the island in May 1944. 0000004715 00000 n Okinawa, the largest of the Ryukyu Islands, was located some 340 miles (550 km) from the island of Kyushu. Concurrently, Japanese forces invaded southern and eastern Thailand and were resisted for several hours, before the Thai government signed an armistice and entered an alliance with Japan. Submarines also rescued hundreds of downed fliers, including future US president George H. W. Bush. Major British Warship Losses in World War II. Once Mutaguchi's hopes for an early victory were thwarted, his troops, particularly those at Kohima, starved. Japan was not any closer to defeating China after this operation, and the constant defeats the Japanese suffered in the Pacific meant that Japan never got the time and resources needed to achieve final victory over China. The Chinese Expeditionary Force captured Mong-Yu and Lashio,[181] while the Chinese and American Northern Combat Area Command resumed its advance in northern Burma. 0000018380 00000 n Over 200 warships were sunk, ranging from many auxiliaries and destroyers to one battleship and no fewer than eight carriers. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers. The raid inflicted minimal material damage on Japanese soil but was a huge morale boost for the United States; it also had major psychological repercussions in Japan, in exposing the vulnerabilities of the Japanese homeland. By 1937, Japan controlled Manchuria and it was also ready to move deeper into China.              Sakhalin, the Aleutian, and Kuril Islands: 8,200, 3,200, (11,400) The Japanese established a major base in the Australian Territory of New Guinea beginning with the capture of Rabaul on 23 January 1942. [102] On 19 February 1942, Darwin suffered a devastating air raid, the first time the Australian mainland had been attacked. By this time, General Douglas MacArthur, who had been appointed Supreme Allied Commander South West Pacific, had been withdrawn to Australia. These numbers do not include the Royal Netherlands Navy. War in the Pacific 1978 by SPIWar in the Pacific - The Campaign Against Imperial Japan, 1941-45 is a multi-level simulation of the Pacific Theater of Operations during World War Two. Meanwhile, in the Central Pacific the Americans initiated a major offensive, beginning in November 1943 with landings in the Gilbert Islands. In addition, Japan honored its neutrality treaty with the Soviet Union and ignored American freighters shipping millions of tons of military supplies from San Francisco to Vladivostok,[144] much to the consternation of its German ally.              Bonin Islands: 2,700, 12,500, (15,200) At critical stages of the Guadalcanal, Saipan, and Leyte campaigns, thousands of Japanese troops were killed or diverted from where they were needed. I have not done an inventory on the counters I believe it to be complete but cannot guarantee that. University of California Press. Retrieved 31 October 2010. [248] Dutch naval losses in the Pacific numbered 14 major warships and 14 minor ones totaling some 40,427 tons: 2 cruisers (Java and De Ruyter), 7 destroyers (Evertsen, Kortenaer, Piet Hein, Witte de With, Banckert, Van Nes, and Van Ghent), 5 submarines (K XVIII, K XVII, K XIII, K X, and K VII), 7 minelayers (Prins van Oranje, Pro Patria, Bangkalan, Rigel, Soemenep, Krakatau, and Gouden Leeuw, most of which were scuttled), and 7 minesweepers (A, B, D, C, Pieter de Bitter, Eland Dubois, and Jan van Amstel). On 26 July 1945, the President of the United States Harry S. Truman, the Chairman of the Nationalist Government of China Chiang Kai-shek and the Prime Minister of Great Britain Winston Churchill issued the Potsdam Declaration, which outlined the terms of surrender for the Empire of Japan as agreed upon at the Potsdam Conference. In 1939, Japanese forces tried to push into the Soviet Far East from Manchuria. The Japanese had spent the better part of a year reconstituting their carrier air groups, and the Americans had destroyed 90% of it in two days. [160] The Japanese were forced to watch helplessly as their garrisons in the Gilberts and then the Marshalls were crushed. During April, the Japanese attacks against Imphal failed, while fresh Allied formations drove the Japanese from the positions they had captured at Kohima. In addition, Japanese control of northern and central China was somewhat tenuous, in that Japan was usually able to control railroads and the major cities ("points and lines"), but did not have a major military or administrative presence in the vast Chinese countryside. Lieutenant General Heitarō Kimura, the new Japanese commander in Burma, hoped that the Allies' lines of communications would be overstretched trying to cross this obstacle. The soldiers of the Chinese Communist Party suffered 584,267 casualties, of which 160,603 were killed, 133,197 missing, and 290,467 wounded. Beehive. DG has sanctioned a current effort in playtest of computer War in Europe 2nd edition on a windows platform.Other titles are not listed as I do not own a copy of the game.BT 071101 Thus the Japanese devised a plan which represented a final attempt to force a decisive battle by utilizing their last remaining strength – the firepower of its heavy cruisers and battleships – against the American beachhead at Leyte. [65], Japanese strategic bombing efforts mostly targeted large Chinese cities such as Shanghai, Wuhan, and Chongqing, with around 5,000 raids from February 1938 to August 1943 in the later case. The aircraft from Midway attacked, but failed to score a single hit on the Japanese. As a result of observing radio silence, Shima's group was unable to coordinate and synchronize its movements with Nishimura's group and subsequently arrived at Surigao Strait in the middle of the encounter; after making a haphazard torpedo attack, Shima retreated. On the morning of 19 February 1945, 30,000 men of 4th, and 5th Marine Divisions under the command of Maj. General Harry Schmidt landed on the southeast coast of the island near Mt. The main Center Force would pass through the San Bernardino Strait into the Philippine Sea, turn southwards, and then attack the landing area.              Borneo: 11,300, 6,700, (18,000) War in Europe. Of the ethnic Dutch troops, 900 were killed in action and 37,000 became prisoners. This stopped Japanese expansion to the north, and Soviet aid to China ended as a result of the signing of the Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact at the beginning of its war against Germany. Following prolonged tensions between Japan and the Western powers, units of the Imperial Japanese Navy and Imperial Japanese Army launched simultaneous surprise attacks on the United States and the British Empire on 7 December (8 December in Asia/West Pacific time zones). The Japanese planned to use their remaining carriers as bait in order to lure the American carriers away from Leyte Gulf long enough for the heavy warships to enter and to destroy any American ships present. The Japanese leadership looked to base the conduct of the war against America on the historical experiences of the successful wars against China (1894–95) and Russia (1904–05), in both of which a strong continental power was defeated by reaching limited military objectives, not by total conquest.[76]. [50] Japan's Shinto Emperor relinquished much of his authority and his divine status through the Shinto Directive in order to pave the way for extensive cultural and political reforms.[51]. trailer [88] The pace of conquest was rapid: Bali and Timor also fell in February. War Between the States (and suggested changes here at end of article). Japanese forces broke their agreement with the Vichy administration and fighting broke out, ending in a Japanese victory. A week later the Australians attacked Japanese positions in North Borneo. American planners recognized the strategic importance of the island, which was only 5 miles (8.0 km) long, 8 square miles (21 km2) in area and had no native population. All four Japanese carriers were sunk, but this part of the Japanese plan had succeeded in drawing the American carriers away from Leyte Gulf. MacArthur moved his headquarters to Melbourne in March 1942 and American troops began massing in Australia. The set enables hours of play with ground, air and naval combat, covering the time-span from December 1941 to the decisive Allied assaults of 1945. From 12 November to 15 November, Japanese and American surface ships engaged in fierce night actions in the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, one of the only two battles in the Pacific War during which battleships fought each other, that saw two US admirals killed in action and two Japanese battleships sunk. [225][226], The US protectorate in the Philippines suffered considerable losses. On 1 March, units of IV Corps captured the supply centre of Meiktila, throwing the Japanese into disarray. The Allies supported and organized an underground anti-Japanese resistance group, known as the Free Thai Movement, after the Thai ambassador to the United States had refused to hand over the declaration of war. The militia, worn out and severely depleted by casualties, were relieved in late August by regular troops from the Second Australian Imperial Force, returning from action in the Mediterranean theater. [264], The Three Alls Policy (Sankō Sakusen) was a Japanese scorched earth policy adopted in China, the three alls being: "Kill All, Burn All and Loot All". Decreased because so few targets dared to venture out on the Chinese forced Japan to fight a costly campaign 1945! Wuhan and captured Tinian through strategic and tactical surprise, the highest point the. Force started to attack. 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